Articles and Books (selected)

Baca, Lawrence. (2004). "Native Images in Schools and the Racially Hostile Environment." Journal of Sport & Social Issues 28(1):71-78.

Bataille, Gretchen M. (2001). Native American Representations: First Encounters, Distorted Images, and Literary Appropriations. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Berkhofer, Robert F. (1978). The White Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian, from Columbus to the Present. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Black, Jason Edward. (2002). "The Mascotting of Native America: Construction, Commodity, and Assimilation." American Indian Quarterly 26(4):605-622.

Briggs, Kara, and Dan Lewerenz. (2003). "Reading Red Report 2003: A Call for the News Media to Recognize Racism in Sports Team Nicknames and Mascots." 31 May 2007.

Clark, David Anthony Tyeeme. (2005). "Wa a o, wa ba ski na me ska ta! 'Indian' Mascots and the Pathology of Anti-Indigenous Racism." In In the Game: Race, Identity, and Sports in the Twentieth Century, edited by A. Bass, 137-166. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Deloria, Philip J. (1999). Playing Indian. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

---. (2004) Indians in Unexpected Places. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Farnell, Brenda. (2004). "The Fancy Dance of Racializing Discourse." Journal of Sport & Social Issues28(1):30-55.

Gone, Joseph P. (1995). "Chief Illiniwek: Dignified or Damaging?" 31 May 2007.

Guiliano, Jennifer E. (2010) An American Spectacle: College Mascots and the Performance of Tradition. Ph.D. Diss. IDEALS: University of Illinois.

---. (2015) Indian Spectacle: College Mascots and the Anxiety of Modern America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Huhndorf, Shari. (2001). Going Native. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

King, C. Richard. (1998). "Spectacles, Sports, and Stereotypes: Dis/Playing Chief Illiniwek." In Colonial Discourses, Collective Memories, and the Exhibition of Native American Cultures and Histories in the Contemporary United States, 41-58. New York: Garland.

King, C. Richard, and Charles Fruehling Springwood, eds. (2001). Team Spirits: The Native American Mascots Controversy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska.

Mihesuah, Devon A. (1996). American Indians: Stereotypes and Realities. Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, Inc.

Pewewardy, Cornell D. (1991). "Native American Mascots and Imagery: The Struggle of Unlearning Indian Stereotypes." Journal of Navaho Education 9(1):19-23.

---. (1999). "From La Belle Sauvage to the Nobel Savage: The Deculturalization of Indian Mascots in American Culture." Multicultural Education 6:6-11.

---. "Why Educators Can't Ignore Indian Mascots." 31 May 2007.

Slapin, Beverly, and Doris Seale, eds. (1992). Through Indian Eyes: the Native Experience in Books for Children. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.

Spindel, Carol. (2000). Dancing at Halftime: Sports and the Controversy over American Indian Mascots. New York: New York University Press.

Strong, Pauline Turner. (2004). "The Mascot Slot: Cultural Citizenship, Political Correctness, and Pseudo-Indian Sports Symbols." Journal of Sport & Social Issues 28(1):79-87.


Rosenstein, Jay. 1996. In Whose Honor? American Indian Mascots in Sports. Available from New Day Films, Ho-ho-kus, NJ.

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